Participle is a special form of a verb. There are two types of Participles: Present Participle and Past Participle.
Present Participle is formed by adding ending -ing to the main verb:
- Examples: smile + ing = smiling, reading + ing = reading
Past Participle of regular verbs can be formed by adding ending -ed to the main verb. Past Participle of irregular verbs (sometimes called Verb 3 form) need to be memorized as they do not have a common rule.
- Examples: spoil + ed = spoiled, wear = worn
Present and Past Participles can be used as adjectives:
- a horrifying story
- a smashed window
When participles come after a noun, they are used like reduced relative clauses:
- I saw a man walking down the street. (I saw a man who was walking down the street.)
- I read a book written by O. Wilde. (I read a book that was written by O. Wilde.)