Education in Russia

  • Written by: Valentina Temina-Kingsolver
  • Published: Wednesday, 09 March 2016
  • Tagged under: education in Russia
  • Times read: 2577
  • Education in Russia
  • Education in Russia is mandatory and provided by state (public) and private schools. It is predominantly regulated by the Ministry of Education and Science; however, regional authorities can regulate education on their territories within the requirements of federal laws.

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I. Statistics: 2003/2004

  • Adult literacy rate (percentage of persons aged 15 and over who can read and write) - 98%
  • Children enrolled in pre-primary schools - 85%
  • Children enrolled in primary schools - 92%
  • Population of tertiary age in tertiary education - 68%
  • Teacher - student ratio (primary school) - 17

Source: http://www.uis.unesco.org

  • Duration of compulsory education - 10-11 years.
  • Education spending (% of GDP) - 3.8%
  • Hours of instruction for pupils aged 10 - 893 hours
  • Hours of instruction for pupils aged 12 - 971 hours
  • Hours of instruction for pupils aged 13 - 998 hours
  • Literacy total population - 99.6%
  • Students from household with calculator age 13 - 89%
  • Students from household with computer age 13 - 35%
  • Students whose mothers have secondary education age 13 - 78%

Source: http://www.nationmaster.com

II. Structure of Education in Russia

Pupils start PRIMARY SCHOOL at age 6 or 7. They stay in it for 3-4 years. At age 10 all students start SECONDARY SCHOOL that they attend till they are 14. At age 15 (after they graduate from 9th grade) students can choose either to continue their education in SENIOR SECONDARY SCHOOL for 2 more years or to enter a VOCATIONAL TRAINING SCHOOL where they normally study for four years. After SENIOR SECONDARY SCHOOL or VOCATIONAL TRAINING SCHOOL students can continue their education in INSTITUTIONS OF HIGHER EDUCATION (Universities, Institutes, Academies) by taking compulsory entrance exams. Courses at Institutions of Higher Education last 4, 5, or 6 years.

III. General Information

The right for education is stated in the Constitution of the Russian Federation.
Compulsory Basic Education lasts for 8-9 years. Age of entry is 6-7.
Graduates of this level may continue their education at senior secondary level (complete general education), or they may enter an initial vocational training school or non-university level higher education institution which offer joint professional and secondary complete general education. The courses last 3-4 years.
Secondary education leads to the award of the Certificate of Secondary General Education.

IV. Main Directions of the State Policy in Education

  • Take into account the needs of the society, state, and economy;
  • Meet educational demands of the society, made up of demands from various social sectors of population, groups and communities, depending on the national and regional peculiarities, etc.;
  • Formulation of a new educational ideal, switching from outright administering to a flexible management, creation of efficient teaching methods and matching technical facilities, particularly new text-books and manuals, training of staff through updated system of training;
  • Humanitarian approach to education, priority of human values, human life and free development of individuals. Children should be trained and taught in the spirit of patriotism, diligence, respect of the law and human rights, love for the Nature, Homeland and family;
  • Preservation of the Federal cultural and educational space. The system of education should develop and retain cultures of Russia’s nations, regional cultural traditions and distinctions in a multicultural country;

(Source: Development of Education in the Russian Federation, 2001: A Report for UNESCO. Retrieved on 2/27/07 from:

V. Extra Facts

  • September 1st – National Holiday – the Day of Knowledge / Knowledge Day
  • 1st Sunday in October – Teacher’s Day (Teacher Appreciation Day)
  • Summer vacations for students – June 1st – September 1st;
  • Grading System: a 5-grade scale is used – “5” = “excellent”, “4” = “good”, “3” = “acceptable”, “2” = “unacceptable”.

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